Charles de Berenger burst into Dover’s Ship Inn just after midnight on 21 February, 1814, wearing a grey military coat and a medal around his neck(1).
He had just arrived from Paris with glorious news, he said. Napoleon was dead.
The brutal war in Europe was over. The allies had taken Paris.
As the news spread, prices of UK government bonds and government-related stocks soared and de Berenger and his partners sold theirs at a handsome profit.
His story was fake.
A new era of manipulating markets with misinformation had begun.
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